Computer hardware and software packages that try to emulate human intelligence, using reasoning and learning to solve problems. The concept of artificial intelligence appears to have been conceived in 1950 by Alan Turing, who used the term "computer intelligence." The concept was renamed "artificial intelligence" in 1955 by John McCarthy.
One of the earliest and most successful applications was an IBM computer program that could play chess, and in 1990, a computer named Mephisto, also known as Deep Blue, surprised the world by checkmating Grand Master Anatoly Karpov. Then again in 2011, Watson, the IBM computer beat two world champions on the TV trivia game Jeopardy!