1. Work Session
1.1. Log InType username to system login prompt.
Type password to password prompt.
1.2. Change PasswordType passwd, followed by old password, and repeat new password.
1.3. Log OutType logout or C-D depending upon system setup.
2. File System
2.1. Create FileType cat > filename, then text ending with C-D, or see Editing Files.
2.2. Make (or Create) DirectoryType mkdir directory-name.
2.3. Look at FileType cat filename or
2.4. Print FileType lp filename.
2.5. List Files and Directoriesls for listing of current directory
ls directory-name for listing of another directory
ls filename for listing of a single file
ls -t filename
ls -t directory-name
to get a listing reverse sorted by time of last modification.
ls -F directory-name to get a listing that marks current directory names by appending a "/" character to them.
2.6. Move (or Rename) Files and DirectoriesType
mv source-filename destination filename to rename a file
mv source-filename destination-directory to move a file into another directory
mv source-directory-name destination-directory-name to rename a directory, or move it into another directory.
2.7. Copy FilesType
cp source-filename destination-filename to copy a file into another filename
cp source-filename destination-directory to copy a file into another directory
2.8. Remove (or Delete) FilesType
rm filename to remove a file
rmdir directory-name to remove an empty directory
rm -r directory-name to remove a directory and its contents.
2.9. Change Working DirectoryType
cd to change directories to your home directory
cd directory-name to change directories to another directory.
2.10. Find Name of Current DirectoryType pwd.
One filename or directory name to access local file or directory.
List of directory names from root directory (first "/") to
desired filename or directory name, each name separated by a
List of directory names from current position to desired filename
or directory name, each name separated by a "/".
2.12. Directory Abbreviation
~ -- Home directory.
~username -- Another user's home directory.
. -- Working directory.
.. -- Parent of working directory.
3.1. Date and TimeType date.
For universal time (Greenwich Mean Time), type date -u.